Countries Rush for Upper Hand in Antarctica
A) On a glacier-filled island with fjords（峡湾）and elephant seals, Russia has built Antarctica’s first Orthodox church on a bill overlooking its research base. Less than an hour away by snowmobile. Chinese laborers have updated the Great Wall Station, a vital part of China’s plan to operate five basses on Antarctica, complete with an indoor badminton court and sleeping quarters for 150 people. Not to be outdone, India’s futuristic new Bharathi base, built on stills（桩子）using 134 interlocking shipping containers, resembles a spaceship. Turkey and Iran have announced plans to build bases, too.
B) More than a century has passed since explorers raced to plant their flags at the bottom of the world, and for decades to come this continent is supposed to be protected as a scientific preserve, shielded from intrusions like military activities and mining . But an array of countries are rushing to assert greater influence here, with an eye not just towards the day those protective treaties expire, but also for the strategic and commercial that already exist.
C) The newer players are stepping into what they view as a treasure house of resources. Some of the ventures focus on the Antarctic resources that are already up for grabs, like abundant sea life. South Korea, which operates state-of–the-art bases here, is increasing its fishing of krill（磷虾），found in abundance in the Southern Ocean, while Russia recently frustrated efforts to create one of the world’s largest ocean sanctuaries here.
D) Some scientists are examining the potential for harvesting icebergs form Antarctica, which is estimated to have the biggest reserves of fresh water on the planet. Nations are also pressing ahead with space research and satellite projects to expand their global navigation abilities.
E) Building on a Soviet-era foothold, Russia is expanding its monitoring stations for Glonass, its version of the Global Positioning System(GPS). At least three Russian stations are already operating in Antarctica, part of its effort to challenge the dominance of the American GPS, and new stations are planned for sites like the Russian base, in the shadow of the Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity.
F) Elsewhere in Antarctica, Russian researchers boast of their recent discovery of a freshwater reserve the size of Lake Ontario after drilling through miles of solid ice. “You can see that we’re here to stay,” said Vladimir Cheberdak, 57, chief of the Bellingshausen Station, as he sipped tea under a portrait of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, a high-ranking officer in the Imperial Russian Navy who explored the Antarctic coast in 1820.
G) Antarctica’s mineral, oil and gas wealth are a longer-term prize. The treaty banning mining here, shielding coveted(令人垂诞的)reserves of iron ore, coal and chromium, comes up for review in 2048. Researchers recently found kimberlite(金伯利岩) deposits hinting at the existence of diamonds. And while assessments vary widely, geologists estimate that Antarctica holds at least 36 billion barrels of oil and natural gas.
H) Beyond the Antarctic treaties, huge obstacles persist to tapping these resources, like drifting icebergs that could jeopardize offshore platforms. Then there is Antarctic’s remoteness, with some mineral deposits found in windswept locations on a continent that is larger the Europe and where winter temperatures hover around minus 55 degrees Celsius.
I) But advances in technology might make Antarctica a lot more accessible three decades from now. And even before then, scholars warn, the demand for resources in an energy-hungry world could raise pressure to renegotiate Antarctica’s treaties, possibly allowing more commercial endeavours here well before the prohibitions against them expire. The research stations on King George lsland offer a glimpse into the long game on this ice-blanketed continent as nations assert themselves, eroding the sway long held by countries like the United States, Britain. Australia and New Zealand.
J) Being stationed in Antarctica involves adapting to life on the planet’s driest, windiest and coldest continent, yet each nation manages to make itself at home. Bearded Russian priests offer regular services at the Orthodox church for the 16 or so Russian speakers who spend the winter at the base, largely polar scientists in fields like glaciology and meteorology. Their number climbs to about 40 in the warmer summer months. China has arguably the fastest growing operations in Antarctica. It opened its fourth station last year and is pressing ahead with plans to build a fifth. It is building its second ice-breaking ship and setting up research drilling operations on an ice dome 13,422 feet above sea level that is one the planet’s coldest places. Chinese officials say the expansion in Antarctica prioritises scientific research. But they also acknowledge that concerns about “resource security” influence their moves.
K) China’s newly renovated Great Wall Station on King George lsland makes the Russian and Chilean bases here seem outdated. ”We do weather monitoring here and other research.” Ning Xu, 53, the chief of the Chinese base, said over tea during a fierce blizzard(暴风雪) in late November. The large base he leads resembles a snowed-in college campus on holiday break, with the capacity to sleep more than 10 times the 13 people who were staying on through the Antarctic winter. Yong Yu, a Chinese microbiologist, showed off the spacious building, with empty desks under an illustrated timeline detailing the rapid growth of China’s Antarctic operations since the 1980s “We now feel equipped to grow,” he said.
L) As some countries expand operations in Antarctica, the United States maintains three year-round stations on the continent with more than 1,000 people during the southern hemisphere’s summer, including those at the Amundsen Scott station, built in 1956 at an elevation of 9,301 feet on a plateau at the South Pole. But US researchers quietly complain about budget restraints and having far fewer icebreakers the Russia, limiting the reach of the United States in Antarctica.
M) Scholars warn that Antarctica’s political drift could blur the distinction between military and civilian activities long before the continent’s treaties come up for renegotiation, especially in parts of Antarctica that are ideal for intercepting(拦截) signals from satellites or retasking satellite systems, potentially enhancing global electronic intelligence operations.
N) Some countries have had a hard time here, Brazil opened a research station in 1984, but it was largely destroyed by a fire that killed two members of the navy in 2012, the same year that a diesel-laden Brazilian barge sank near the base. As if that were not enough. a Brazilian C-130 Hercules military transport plane has remained stranded near the runway of Chile’s air base here since it crash-landed in 2014.
O) However, Brazil’s stretch of misfortune has created opportunities for China, with a Chinese company winning the $100 million contract in 2015 to rebuild the Brazilian station.
P) Amid all the changes, Antarctica maintains its allure. South Korea opened its second Antarctic research base in 2014, describing it as a way to test robots developed by Korean researchers for use in extreme conditions. With Russia’s help, Belarus is preparing to build this first Antarctic base. Colombia said this year that it planned to join other South American nations with bases in Antarctica.
Q) “The old days of the Antarctic being dominated by the interests and wishes of white men from European. Australasian and North American states are over.” Said Klaus Dodds, a politics scholar at the University of London who specialises in Antarctica. “The reality is that Antarctica is geopolitically contested.”
36. According to Chinese officials, their activities in Antarctica lay greater emphasis on scientific research.
37. Efforts to create one of the world’s largest ocean sanctuaries failed because of Russia’s obstruction.
38. With several monitoring stations operating in Antarctica, Russia is trying hard to counter America’s dominance in the field of worldwide navigational facilities.
39. According to geologists’ estimates. Antarctica has enormous reserves of oil and natural gas.
40. It is estimated that Antarctica boasts of the richest reserves of fresh water on earth.
41. The demand for energy resources may compel renegotiation of Antarctica’s treaties before their expiration.
42. Many countries are racing against each other to increase their business and strategic influence on Antarctica.
43. Antarctica’s harsh natural conditions constitute huge obstacles to the exploitation of its resources.
44. With competition from many countries, Antarctica is no longer dominated by the traditional white nations.
45. American scientists complain about lack of sufficient money and equipment for their expansion in Antarctica.
36.[J] 对应关键词，题干中提到Chinese officials和scientific research, 定位到J段，此段中同时出现了这两个关键词。
37.[C] 划出关键词efforts, ocean sancturies, Russian’s obstruction, 然后定位到C段，此时看到while Russian frustrated efforts, frustrate=obstruct, 所以跟题干信息匹配。
38.[E] 对应题干中的关键词Russia, America’s dominance（美国的主导地位），跟E段信息Russia, the dominance of America完全匹配.
39.[G] 题干中有关键词geologist’s estimate,以及oil and natural gas，去文中定位，看到G段的oil and gas, 然后向下找信息，找到了geologist estimate,所以39题为G段的总结。
40.[D] 通过关键词richest reserves, fresh water on earth定位到D段，找到biggest reserve,发现前边有estimate，题干也有动词estimate; 然后看到fresh water on planet，planet=earth, 所以非常确定D为正确选项。
41. [I] 通过关键词demand for energy resources和renegotiate匹配到I选项。
42. [B]题干中提到many countries很多国家彼此之间竞争以增加对南极洲的影响Antarctica，所以定位到B段落.
43. [H]定位词是harsh nature conditions南极洲严酷的自然环境给开发资源造成了巨大的障碍，匹配关键词到H段落。
44. [Q] 南极洲不在受白人国家的主导，white nations定位到Q段落。