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In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers ……完形填空及答案           ★★★★
In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers ……完形填空及答案
作者:1 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2017/8/24

Reading Comprehension
Section A
    Directio ns: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively   51   work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.
In any case, despite so much evidence to the   52  , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe,   53   , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from   54   without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.
Different cultures have different ways of   55   people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to   56   to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general   57  . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional   58   managers cannot.
A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own with out   59   managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing:   60   the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be   61   with just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has   62   been the case. Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management control to   63   that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less.
Another trend is off-site or   64   management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Pr oject managers evaluate the   65   of the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them.
51. A. desire   B. seek    C. lose    D. dislike  
52. A. contrary   B. expectation   C. degree    D. extreme 
53. A. vice versa  B. for example   C. however   D. otherwise
54. A. outside   B. in side    C. below    D. above
55. A. replacing  B. assessing   C. managing   D. encouraging 
56. A. re fer   B. contribute   C. object    D. apply
57. A. agreement  B. practice   C. election   D. impression
58. A. bossy   B. experienced   C. western   D. male  
 59. A. asking   B. training   C. warning   D. firing
60. A. doubling  B. maintaining   C. reducing   D. estimating
61. A. honored      B. left    C. crowded   D. compared
62. A. economically B. traditionally  C. inadequately  D. occasionally
63. A. deny   B. admit    C. assume   D. ensure
64. A. virtual   B. ineffective   C. day-to-day   D. on-the-scene
65. A. opinion   B. risk    C. performance  D. attractiveness
【答案】51. D    5 2. A    53. B    54. D    55. C    56. B    57. A    58. D    59. A    60. C
        61. B    62. B    63. D    64. A    65. C    
 52.A 考查上下文串联。短语to the contrary相反的;to the degree在某种程度上;to the extreme走向极端;在文章第一段中提到了X理论,大多数人都缺乏进取心和责任心,不愿对人和事负责,没有什么雄心壮志,不喜欢负责任,宁可被领导。而Y理论认为大多数人愿意对工作、对他人负责,人们愿意实行自我管理和自我控制来完成应当完成的目标。这是两种完全相反的理论,尽管对于这两种完全相反的理论有很多的证据,很多管理人仍然同意X理论。故A正确。
53.B 考查上下文串联。本句中for example表示举例说明;这些管理人仍然同意X理论,例如他们认为如果要员工效率高,就需要给与他们不断的监督。这属于X理论的举例说明。故B正确。
54.D 考查上下文串联。根据后句“...makes for authoritarian managers....”可知这属于专制的管理方法,他们的决定是来自上而下的,没有任何商量的余地。故D项“above上面的”正确。
55.C 考查上下文串联。根据前段可知本文讨论的管理学的理论,使用本句使用动词“manage管理”,不同的文化中有不同的管理人的方法。而且和下文中亚洲、西方的管理方法形成呼应。故C正确。
56.B 考查动词短语辨析。短语refer to提到,谈到;contribute to做贡献;导致;object to反对;apply to适用于;亚洲人使用的是协商式的管理方法,所有人都被要求对管理的过程做出自己的贡献。故B正确。
57.A 考查上下文串联。名词agreement同意;practice练习,做法;election选举;impression印象;亚洲人使用协商式的管理方法,这种方法是建立在共同的协议基础之上的,西方人也想学习这样的管理方法。故A正确。
58.D 考查上下文串联。根据前半句“....women will become more effective managers than men....”可知有些专家认为女性比男性管理更高效。因为女性更有亲和力,比男性管理人更容易与别人达成一致的目标。故D正确。
59.A 考查上下文串联。根据前句“... encourage employees to use their own initiative...鼓励员工使用自己的首创精神”,也就是说在做出决定的时候不要请示上级经理,自己做出决定即可。故A项正确。
 62.B 考查副词辨析。副词economically经济地;traditionally传统地;inadequately不充分地;occasionally偶尔地;根据后句“Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management...”可知授权管理是一个新型的管理方法,与传统的管理模式不一样。故B正确。
63.D 考查动词辨析。动词deny否认;admit承认;assume假定,设想;ensure保证,确保;授权管理是一种新型的管理方法,省略了中央管理环节,保证了整个商业计划被采用。根据句意可知D正确。
64.A 考查上下文串联。形容词virtual虚拟的;ineffective低效的;day-to-day日常的;on-the-scene现场的;根据后句“where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Inte rnet work on projects from their own houses”可知在这种新型的管理方法中,人们都是通过邮件和网络联系,说明这种一种新型通过虚拟网络进行的管理方法。故A正确。


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